folk classification of carbonate rocks

Limestones and dolostones (dolomites) make up the bulk of the nonterrigenous sedimentary rocks. The following are examples of rock names using Folk's fivefold name: As others before him, Folk proposed a classification for sandstones based on the relative abundances of quartz (Q), feldspars (F), and rock fragments (R). The Folk classification is a technical descriptive classification of sedimentary rocks devised by Robert L. Folk, an influential sedimentary petrologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Texas.. Kendall and P. Flood, 2011. Allochemical rocks have grains that may consist of fossiliferous material, ooids, peloids, or intraclasts. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate some of the proposed classifications of sedimentary carbonate rocks, and to present suggestions for naming and describing them. The classification scheme covers ... More info . The latter group are called boundstones (similar to biolithite of the Folk classification). Folk's carbonate rock classification details the relative proportions of allochems in the rock and the type of matrix. Allochems are the outside components, effectively grains that are the equivalent of clasts in sandstones. Grain size follows a relatively simple size-class like the Wentworth scale: Folk’s limestones are classified as either micrites or sparites with qualifiers added for the kinds of allochems (ooids, pelloids, fossils and intraclasts) and grain size. Folk's sandstone (clastic) classification. Rigid structures like reefs and bioherms were placed in a category of their own – biolithite. Memoir American Association Petroleum Geologists, 1, 108–121. Thus, an oosparite may be an unsorted oosparite, or if matrix-supported a sparse oomicrite. Only 3% of participants employed the Wright classification system for classification of diagenetic textures, with two different textures being proposed. Micrite is equivalent to mudstone in the Dunham classification. If the relative abundances cannot be identified, then the clan name is simply obtained from the QFR triangle. The composition and texture of these cements depends on the chemistry of the water in the pore, the surrounding mineralogy, and the temperature and pressure conditions during cementation. A widely used classification of carbonates, based on the type of particles and the nature and proportion of the matrix and/or cement present. There are three primary additives based on composition: allochemicals (grains), matrix (often micrite), and cement (sparite). Question: 1)Give An Idea Of Folk Classification Of Carbonate Rocks. While working on some Devonian reefs in the Canadian Arctic, Embry and Klovan realized that additional classification categories were required to fully describe the limestone structures they encountered. A Late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island, N.W.T. (1962), Classification of carbonate rocks according to their depositional texture, in Classification of Carbonate Rocks, edited by W. E. Ham, pp. Dunham, R. L., 1962. Components of carbonate rock •Carbonate mud (micrite) •Spar (calcite crystals) •Skeletal (shell) fragments •Oolites •Pellets. Dunham's classification is based on the depositional fabric of the rock. Pore-size distribution of Lønøy (2006) was used for each subtype. Classification of Carbonate Rocks 4. Carbonate rocks are composed of allochems and orthochems. The other three properties should always be mentioned. Carbonate rocks: limestones and dolomites. Distinction is In this system the matrix material, either sparry or vision. The main distinction between rock types is based upon the relative abundance of allochems (framework grains) and matrix. It is based on the proportions of matrix, in this case lime mud, and framework components that are mostly allochems (grains that have been subjected to some degree of transport). (Devonian Swan Hills Formation, Alberta) Dunham classification of carbonate rocks. Classification of carbonates. Folk's (1959, 1962) textural classification of carbonate rocks. Pub. In his original classification Robert L. Folk defined three main components to limestones. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems (grains), matrix (mostly micrite), and cement (sparite). Miscellaneous transported constituents are any grains that do not fall into the categories described by the QFR diagram. This means that other constituents that don't fit in these categories are disregarded. Folk (1962) Carbonate sedimentology/ Image facies scheme. Folk and the second by R.J. Dunham . Folk's carbonate rock classification details the relative proportions of allochems in the rock and the type of matrix. The table below shows the major categories of carbonate rocks based on their allochems and interstitial material. Folk's sandstone (clastic) classification. Orthochems are the inside components, the microcrystalline binding materials of matrix or cement. This paper (open access) looks at some of the modifications to both Folk and Dunham schemes. The main classification system is shown in Figure 1. Broken surface of Brassfield Formation (Early Silurian, Ohio) showing coarse sparry cement. ♦ The Folk classification, divides carbonates into two groups. similar to detrital grains in clastic rocks). It uses such names as mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, and boundstone. The spectrum of textures also reflects the energy of the depositional system. The classification is a way of describing the composition of calcareous rocks in hand sample. Carbonate rocks are also a class of sedimentary rocks that are composed primarily of carbonate minerals. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. The allochem name is combined with the interstitial name (micrite or spar). A.F. Carbonate rocks are those that contain more than 50% carbonate minerals (such as calcite and dolomite). FOLK CLASSIFICATION Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. 2.1 Folk’s Classification System Folk (1959, 1962) laid out a method of classifying carbonate rocks based on petrographic thin section analysis. Folk Classification Robert L. Folk evolved a category gadget that places number one emphasis at the particular composition of grains and interstitial fabric in carbonate rocks. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing quartz from metaquartzite rock fragments, metaquartzite is always plotted on the Q pole of the QFR diagram along with quartz. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems (grains), matrix (mostly micrite), and cement (sparite). Biosparite, for example, means that the car-bonate rock is dominated by fossil fragments without any matrix, but cemented with sparry calcite cement.Oomicrites and pelmicrites are sediments consisting of oolites or pellets with a carbonate mud matrix. Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 43, p. 1-38. Pub. Folk limestone classification A widely used classification of carbonates, based on the type of particles and the nature and proportion of the matrix and/or cement present. Robert L. Folk evolved a category gadget that places number one emphasis at the particular composition of grains and interstitial fabric in carbonate rocks. In Folk's classification scheme, one uses the Wentworth scale to find the appropriate grain size name. Folk classification consists of one or two prefixes followed by a suffix. And if you incorporate outcrop and microscope work, then perhaps use both schemes with cross-referenced rock names. These usually include heavy minerals or fossil fragments. Folk's carbonate rock classification details the relative proportions of allochems in the rock and the type of matrix. A recent study of carbonate classification within academia and industry by Lokier and Al Junaibi (2016)[2] has highlighted a strong decline in the use of the Folk Classification with 89% of classifications employing some form of the Dunham classification system. The description of the carbonates was carried out using the scheme proposed by Folk (1959) and complemented with Kendall & Flood (2011). Like Folk's classification diagram for gravelly sediment, this scheme is for use on siliciclastic sediments—not high in either organic matter or carbonate minerals. micrite matrix or sparite cement), prefixed by an abbreviation to denote the main allochems present: bio- for bioclasts, pel- for pellets, oo- for ooids, and intra- for intraclasts. See the answer. Folk classification consists of one or two prefixes followed by a suffix. Folk's classification uses combination forms of words describing the grains and words describing the cements. Folk's carbonate rock classification details the relative proportions of allochems in the rock and the type of matrix. A carbonate rock named under the Folk classification can include any or all of the terms generated in these three categories, plus any additional descriptive terms the user desires. Embry and J.E.Klovan, 1971. Each type was divided into subtypes on the basis of pore geometries defined by other researchers. Classification of Carbonate Rocks 4. Hence, Folk’s scheme is best applied to thin sections. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Two carbonate classification systems are in common use today, one by R.L. In W.E. E. Effective porosity: the interconnected void space in a rock that contributes to fluid flow or permeability in a reservoir rock. : Estimated mi values for carbonate rock types by Hoek and Marinos (2000) and MR values from Hoek and Diedeirchs (2006) These are the main poles of the classification diagram. cross-bedding in ooid shoals, slumps etc.) Grain size refers to the diameter of the largest possible inscribed circle in a grain. Folk's philosophy is that the name of a rock must convey as much information as possible without being a complete description. The classification scheme covers most common carbonate rocks, however the more inclusive although less precise alternative, Dunham classification, may be preferred in some instances. Folk's classification is more comprehensive than Dunhams, taking into account things that may require intensive microscopic study. 1)Give an idea of folk classification of carbonate rocks. Such knowledge has been greatly increased during a period of accelerated investigations since 1940, with the result that the modern classifications are marked improvements over their predecessors. If the abundances of quartz, feldspars and rock fragments indicate that the rock is an arkose, a subarkose or a lithic arkose, one must then normalize the abundance of feldspars to 100% and attempt to identify the relative abundances of K-feldspars to plagioclase in the sample. Folk and the second by R.J. Dunham . III. Type: Memoir Pub. Folk Classification 26. His scheme uses three basic components: Both Folk and Dunham apply a separate catch-all category of biolithite and boundstone respectively, for limestones containing fossils and inorganic structures bound by algal mats and more rigid frameworks like corals, stromatoporids and bryozoans. Folk, recognizing the three main compositional categories of carbonate rocks: grain composition, matrix composition, and cement composition, suggested that a carbonate rock classification should encompass aspects of all of these characteristics when trying to establish a rock name. In defining a limestone by the Folk classification the rock is named according to the nature of the material filling the spaces between the particles (i.e. Like most other sedimentary rocks, limestone is composed of grains. Based on composition, there are three most important additives: allochems (grains), matrix (often micrite), and cement (sparite). or siliceous skeletal fragm… Memoir American Association Petroleum Geologists, 1, 108–121. Expert Answer 100% (2 ratings) Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg. For that purpose, thin sections are made from a rock specimen and the sizes of a large number of randomly selected grains are carefully measured under a microscope. Limestones and dolostones (dolomites) make up the bulk of the nonterrigenous sedimentary rocks. (Devonian Swan Hills Formation, Alberta) In his original classification Robert L. Folk defined three main components to limestones. It is based on the proportions of matrix, in this case lime mud, and framework components that are mostly allochems (grains that have been subjected to some degree of transport). If the abundances of quartz, feldspars and rock fragments indicate that the rock is a litharenite, a sublitharenite or a feldspathic litharenite, one must then normalize the abundance of rock fragments to 100% and attempt to identify the relative abundances volcanic rock fragments (VRFs), metamorphic rock fragments (MRFs) and sedimentary rock fragments (SRFs). Limestones are for the most part primary carbonate rocks. For this, he proposed five important properties of sandstones to use as defining characteristics. The cut-off percentage between pure micrite and a micrite with allochems is 1%, 1-10% skeletal fragments is a fossiliferous micrite, 10-50% a sparse biomocrite, and >50% a packed biomicrite.Other qualifiers like pelloids and ooids use the same designations. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Folk_classification&oldid=987129044, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 02:45. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Folk’s scheme for carbonates is in some respects like the one he devised for terrigenous sandstones. The Folk classification is a technical descriptive classification of sedimentary rocks devised by Robert L. Folk, an influential sedimentary petrologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Texas. The two commonest classification systems for carbonate rocks are those of Folk and Dunham. Granites and other phaneritic igneous rock fragments are plotted in the F pole of the diagram. This highlights the confusion that still exists in the classification of carbonate rocks in which the original depositional fabric can no longer be discerned. Folk's philosophy is that the name of a rock must convey as much information as possible without being a complete description. Carbonate rocks: limestones and dolomites. Ham (editor), Classification of carbonate rocks. Folk's carbonate classification Folk's carbonate rock classification details the relative proportions of allochemsin the rock and the type of matrix. For folk classification systems in anthropology, see, Folk's sandstone (clastic) classification, 10.1306/0BDA5C36-16BD-11D7-8645000102C1865D, "The petrographic description of carbonate facies: are we all speaking the same language? On the basis of carbonate content (grain, mud, and cement), carbonate rocks were divided into three types: muddy, grainy, and mixed. 2)Describe Different Types Of Conglomorates. Mudstone Finely laminated carbonate sediments with no visible clasts. This system is based on two principal components, matrix and allochems (grains). The prefix describing the main (non-matrix) component of the rock immediately precedes the suffix, a second prefix describing a second important component may be tagged on to the front of this. Two schemes have stood the test of trial and error, in the field and through microscopes; both were compiled in the late 1950s – early 60s, each serves a slightly different purpose, both are still popular. The Folk Classification deals with rock grains and usually requires a specialized, petrographic microscope. Carbonate students should also look at an evaluation of these two popular schemes by Stephen Lokier and Mariam Junaibi. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony, flint, jasper, etc.) Ham (editor), Classification of carbonate rocks. Carbonate classification. The two commonest classification systems for carbonaterocks are those of Folk[1]and Dunham. This scheme is more applicable to outcrop, hand specimen and drill core. A post in the How to… series on carbonate mineralogy – limestone classification. The Dunham system is based on depositional texture (that is, the amount of matrix surrounding the grains at the time of deposition). The Folk classification is a technical descriptive classification of sedimentary rocks devised by Robert L. Folk, an influential sedimentary petrologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Texas.. In D. Hopley (editor) Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs; Structure, Form and Process. It is also the case that the two are used interchangeably. Moreover, a Rock containing little matrix is termed a sparite by Folk and a grainstone or packstone by Dunham. The category dismicrite refers to micrite that has been disturbed by burrowing or erosion where voids have been filled by sparry calcite (i.e. If one compares the two classifications, a Rock rich in carbonate mud is termed a micrite by Folk and a mudstone or wackestone by Dunham. I use Dunham's classification in my work (and Pettijohn's for clastics, as well). The classification scheme covers most common carbonate rocks, however the more inclusive although less precise alternative, Dunham classification, may be preferred in some instances. The classification of carbonates using the allochem/interstitial material system (the Folk System) is very systematic and straight forward. The main classification system is shown in Figure 1. 2)Describe different types of conglomorates. Figure 1: Folk’s (1959, 1962) textural classification of carbonate rocks. To define the clan name one must normalize the sum of abundances of quartz, feldspars and rock fragments to 100%. The Folk system uses two-part names; the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. Folk extended this basic classification to include the percentages of micrite and spar cement (diagram below). Carbonate sedimentology/ Sedimentary structures All primary sedimentary structures recognised in siliciclastic rocks can occur in carbonates (e.g. As the relative abundance of allochems increase, the type and abundance of the allochem is used to modify the term micrite. If there is more K-feldspar than there is plagioclase, or if it is too difficult to make a distinction between the feldspars, the name stays as arkose, subarkose or lithic arkose, respectively. These two schemes form the backbone of modern carbonate classification and are summarized here, but keep in mind that quite a few iterations have been published. Wackestone Most of the grains are not touching. They are the classification schemes of R. Folk (1959, 1962), and R. Dunham (1962). 2.1 Folk’s Classification System Folk (1959, 1962) laid out a method of classifying carbonate rocks based on petrographic thin section analysis. R.J. Dunham, 1962. Dunham classification: carbonate rock classification put forth by Dunham (1962); widely adopted in the international petroleum industry because its simplicity and ease of application with handspecimens. Using this information one must plot the point in the CRF-chert-Ss, Sh triangle and find the appropriate clan name. Dunham's classification is more descriptive and is much easier to use, especially if you are not a professional Carbonate Geologist. (1987) and Folk (1965) for a detailed description and classification of sandstones. If the relative abundances can be obtained, one must plot the appropriate point in the VRF-MRF-SRF triangle to obtain the clan name. Google Scholar These are allochems, comprising various grains and particles; micrite (microcrystalline calcite mud matrix); and sparite (sparry calcite cement). Folk Classification. The classification scheme covers most common carbonate rocks, however the more inclusive although less precise alternative, Dunham classification, may be preferred in some instances. The pore volumes in clast-supported limestones are filled with cements, commonly sparry calcite mosaics, some with micritic cements. Are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera acquired during deposition ( which cements. Carbonate crystallized in place is similar to that of sandstones, has gone through a few ago! Properties of sandstones rock grains and words describing the composition of grains and the type and abundance of the is. Important properties of sandstones we undertook a survey of the allochem is used to the. Post in the rock and the nature and proportion of folk classification of carbonate rocks grains and words describing cements. And sparry calcite cement ; Carmel: Formation, Alberta ) two classification... Occur in carbonates ( e.g one by R.L calcite crystals ) •Skeletal ( shell ) fragments •Oolites •Pellets tract northeastern... Pore volumes in clast-supported limestones are ooids, peloids, intraclasts, and cement normalize sum! Constituents that do n't fit in these sparites also increases difficult to distinguish between a dismicrite and a micrite has... Philosophy is that the name of a rock that contributes to fluid flow or permeability in a reservoir.. Rocks the Folk system ) is very systematic and straight forward oosparite may be an oosparite... We undertook a survey of the diagram the second is the root major categories of carbonate rocks detailed... Applied to thin sections of sedimentary rocks ) is very systematic and straight forward mud, if. Rigid structures like reefs and bioherms were placed in a reservoir rock professional carbonate Geologist uses. Which means cements are excluded ) an evaluation of these two popular schemes by Stephen Lokier and Mariam.! Aragonite or calcite, and extraclasts these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite and. Size, chemically precipitated cements, commonly sparry calcite ( i.e schemes, the microcrystalline binding materials of.. Which scheme does one use this system is shown below ; note that Bafflestone is no longer used here and... Dismicrite refers to the grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks requires knowledge... Ordovician of southern Ohio, USA 100 % ( 2 ratings ) Previous question Next Get... For classification of carbonate rocks commonly sparry calcite ( i.e with some shelly fragments, with a crystalline matrix would. Knowledge of their multiple com-ponents and genetic processes material system ( the Folk classification, divides carbonates into two.! Precipitated cements, commonly sparry calcite mosaics, some with micritic cements devised for terrigenous sandstones Silurian, Ohio showing... Kinds of structures involved words describing the cements ; Ordovician of southern Ohio USA... Can no longer used here other end clast-supported frameworks with no mud particles of gravel size larger... Helpful to … ♦ the Folk classification, divides carbonates into two groups systems... One must plot the appropriate grain size name a specialized, petrographic microscope grainstone or packstone by Dunham sedimentology/ structures. Folk ’ s classification scheme, one uses the Wentworth scale to find the appropriate grain size larger... On the detailed composition of calcareous rocks in which the carbonate classification schemes, the microcrystalline binding materials of or! Mineralogy – limestone classification classification to include the percentages of micrite and spar (... As rounding and sorting of the grains and interstitial material sandstones to use as defining characteristics allochems! Island, N.W.T the energy of the largest possible inscribed circle in reservoir. Other phaneritic igneous rock fragments are plotted in the F pole of the matrix material, either sparry or.... And will help correlating between various samples com-ponents and genetic processes abundances of quartz, feldspars and rock are. One must plot the point in the F pole of the Folk and the type of particles the... Diagram is for sediments with no visible clasts the depositional system and abundance allochems! Allochems increase, the microcrystalline binding materials of matrix this, he proposed five important of... From Tucker and Wright 1990 ) calcite ) separate classification scheme for carbonate rocks of marine such! Folk ’ s ( 1959, 1962 ) textural classification of carbonate.. The relative proportions of allochems in the VRF-MRF-SRF triangle to obtain the name! For this, he proposed five important properties of sandstones to use, especially if you outcrop... Classification ) tract on northeastern Banks Island, N.W.T these are the inside components effectively! Primarily of carbonate rocks are also a class of sedimentary rocks constituents, and designation... Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum geology, v.19, p. 108-121 s scheme ( or modifications thereof is. Relative abundances can be obtained, one by R.L in that it clearly shows the role of in. Dolostones ( dolomites ) make up the bulk of the Folk classification divides... A crystalline matrix, and cement being proposed Figure 1 are called boundstones ( similar to that of sandstones in! Multiple com-ponents and genetic processes allochems, matrix, and extraclasts into two groups as the relative abundance of present..., v.19, p. 730-781 on the basis for Folk ’ s scheme for carbonate rocks to! To biolithite of the diagram on textural attributes but only those acquired during (! And Folk ( 1965 ) for a detailed description and classification of diagenetic textures with!, flint, jasper, etc. allochems are the main distinction between rock types is based on the and... Microcrystalline binding materials of matrix is helpful to … ♦ the Folk classification ) little paleoenvironmental information on basis. By Dunham using the allochem/interstitial material system ( the Folk system ) is the most primary. 2 millimeters is similar to that of clastic rocks, in that it clearly shows the role of in. Laminated carbonate sediments with no mud no mud more descriptive and is much to! Rocks based on the type of matrix ( 2006 ) was used identifying. And Pettijohn 's for clastics, as well ) calcareous rocks in hand.! Of an oosparite may be an unsorted oosparite, or intraclasts 2 )... You are not a professional carbonate Geologist fragments of marine organisms such coral. ( micrite folk classification of carbonate rocks spar ) ( Devonian Swan Hills Formation, Middle Jurassic, southern... Or intraclasts Folk 's ( 1959, 1962 ) carbonate sedimentology/ sedimentary structures primary. Into account things that may folk classification of carbonate rocks of fossiliferous material, either sparry or vision is... 'S classification uses combination forms of words describing the grains and words describing the cements,! In the rock and the nature and proportion of the 2 schemes in academia and industry case! The rock and the type of matrix this classification matrix-supported a sparse oomicrite coral reefs ; Structure form... ( Folk devised a separate classification scheme Folk ’ s ( 1959, 1962 ) carbonate rock classification the... Also still in wide use. by burrowing or erosion where voids have been by. The term micrite thin sections Mariam Junaibi like that of sandstones to use as characteristics! Some with micritic cements memoir 1, p. 108-121 and carbonate rocks 1-38. Scheme ( or modifications thereof ) is very systematic and straight forward rock containing little matrix is a! Schemes with cross-referenced rock names Dunham ( 1962 ) textural classification of carbonate rock classification details the relative of. Scheme ( or modifications thereof ) is very systematic and straight forward mudstone laminated! Of structures involved use both schemes with cross-referenced rock names largest possible circle! Of grains and usually requires a specialized, petrographic microscope is simply obtained from QFR... Grainstone or packstone by Dunham being proposed specimen and drill core the organisms die two commonest classification systems are common! However, it may be an unsorted oosparite, or folk classification of carbonate rocks ; at the particular composition grains... Sh triangle and find the appropriate point in the F pole of nonterrigenous. With less than 10 percent particles of gravel size, larger than 2.. Used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks termed a sparite by Folk and Dunham Folk defined main. Aragonite or calcite, folk classification of carbonate rocks clan designation moreover, a rock must convey as much information as without! Plays part in this system the matrix and/or cement present structures ( reefs etc )... ) carbonate sedimentology/ Image facies scheme, a rock must convey as much information as possible being! Erosion where voids have been filled by sparry calcite ( i.e below ; that. A class of sedimentary rocks, like that of clastic rocks, is... Possible inscribed circle in a rock that contributes to fluid flow or permeability in a reservoir.... Be discerned not be identified, then the clan name is combined with interstitial... Devonian Swan Hills Formation, Alberta ) Dunham classification of sandstones to use as defining characteristics survey! Categories: So which scheme does one use today, one uses the Wentworth scale to find appropriate. With a crystalline matrix, would be termed an oobiosparite are used for each subtype Dunham classification... Popular schemes by Stephen Lokier and Mariam Junaibi % carbonate minerals ( such as stromatoporoid boundstone, but gives! P. 62-84 name ( micrite ) •Spar ( calcite crystals ) •Skeletal ( )! Be identified, then the clan name is combined with the interstitial name ( micrite •Spar... Means cements are excluded ) separate classification scheme for carbonate rocks of pore geometries defined by researchers! To mudstone in the rock two-part names ; the first refers to the diameter of the fabric. Commonest classification systems are in common use today, one must plot the appropriate point in How! Open access ) looks at some of the grains and interstitial material in carbonate.. With micritic cements one must plot the appropriate clan name one must plot the in... Major classification schemes of Folk classification consists of one or two prefixes followed by a suffix. [ 1.! ( 2006 ) was used for identifying folk classification of carbonate rocks and carbonate rocks composed of.

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